The Republic of Namibia attained its independence on 21 March 1990 and was established as a sovereign, secular, democratic and unitary State. In accordance with the doctrine of separation of powers, the government is divided into three organs:
Each organ is responsible for a different function of the government. The legislative branch is responsible for making laws which are implemented by the executive and interpreted by the judiciary branch.
The President is the head of State and government. He is elected in a national election every five years.
The Cabinet consists of the President, the Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister and Ministers appointed by the President. Together, they implement the policies guided by the constitution and acts of Parliament. The Prime Minister is the Chief Advisor to the President and the overall coordinator of the Government Offices, Ministries and Agencies. Under Prime Minister are Ministers and Deputy Ministers and their staff members who are responsible for different Ministries.
Article 102 of the Constitution provides that the Country be divided into regional and local units. In keeping with this constitutional requirements, thirteen (13) administrative regions and many other Local Authorities have been established in terms of both Regional Councils Act and Local Authorities Acts of 1992.
The Judiciary in terms of Article 78 of the Constitution, judicial powers are vested in the Courts of Namibia, which consists of:
The Courts are independent and subject only to the Constitution and the law.
The Legislature branch of government is responsible for making laws of the Country. The main law-making body is the Parliament, which consists of two different chambers:
H.E. President Hage Geingob
The President is the Head of State and Government. He or She is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Namibian Defence Force. Executive power is vested in the President and Cabinet. He or she is elected by a popular vote for a term of five years with a maximum of two terms and signs the bills passed by both houses of the legislature into law.
President: H.E. Dr. Hage G. Geingob
Vice President: H.E. Dr. Nangolo Mbumba
Prime Minister: Rt. Hon. Dr. Saara Kuugongelwa-Amadhila
Deputy: Hon. Netumbo Nandi-Ndaitwah
Minister in the Presidency: Hon. Christine //Hoebes
Director-General of the National Planning Commission: Hon. Obeth Kandjoze
Minister of Gender Equality, Poverty Eradication and Social Welfare: Hon. Doreen Sioka
Deputy: Hon. Bernadette Jagger
Deputy Minister: Disability Affairs: Hon Alexia Manombe-Ncube
Deputy Minister: Marginalised Communities: Hon. Royal /Ui/o/oo
Minister of International Relations and Cooperation: Hon. Netumbo Nandi-Ndaitwah
Deputy: Hon. Jenelly Matundu
Minister of Home Affairs, Immigration, Safety and Security: Hon. Albert Kawana
Deputy: Hon. Daniel Kashikola
Minister of Defense and Veterans Affairs: Hon. Frans Kapofi
Deputy: Hon. Hilma Nicanor
Minister of Finance: Hon. Iipumbu Shiimi
Deputy: Hon. Maureen Hinda-Mbuende
Minister of Industrialization and Trade: Hon. Lucia Iipumbu
Deputy: Hon. Verna Sinimbo
Minister of Agriculture, Water and Land Reform: Hon. Carl H.G. Schlettwein
Deputy: Hon. Anna Shiweda
Minister of Urban and Rural Development: Hon. Erastus Uutoni
Deputy: Hon. Nathalia /Goagoses
Minister of Health and Social Services: Hon. Dr. Kalumbi Shangula
Deputy: Hon. Dr. Esther Muinjangue
Minister of Education, Arts and Culture: Hon. Anna Nghipondoka
Deputy: Hon. Faustina Caley
Minister of Higher Education, Technology and Innovation: Hon. Dr. Itah Kandjii-Murangi
Minister of Works and Transport: Hon. John Mutorwa
Deputy: Hon. Veicco Nekundi
Minister of Environment, Forestry and Tourism: Hon. Pohamba Shifeta
Deputy: Hon. Heather Sibungo
Minister of Mines and Energy: Hon. Tom Alweendo
Deputy: Hon. Kornelia Shilunga
Minister of Fisheries and Marine Resources: Hon. Derek Klazen
Deputy: Hon. Sylvia Makgone
Minister of Justice: Hon. Yvonne Dausab
Minister of Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment Creation: Hon. Utoni Nujoma
Deputy: Hon. Hafeni Ndemula
Minister of Sport, Youth and National Service: Hon. Agnes Tjongarero
Deputy: Hon. Emma Kantema-Gaomas
Minister of Information and Communication Technology: Hon. Dr. Peya Mushelenga
Deputy: Hon. Emma Theofelus
The Constitution promulgates a multiparty democracy with fundamental rights and freedoms, a mixed economy and states that foreign investment should be encouraged. It also follows the principle of a separation of powers, subject to checks and balances, whereby government is divided into three branches, the executive, the legislature and the judiciary.
Structure of Government
The Executive is that branch of the government that sees to it that the laws passed by the National Assemblyand National Council are carried out. The Executive powers of Namibia vests with the President and the Cabinet. The President is therefore the head of State and government. He/she is elected by direct franchise in a national election every five years in which he/she must win more than 50% of the votes.
The Cabinet consists of the President, the Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister and Ministers appointed by the President. Together, they implement the policies guided by the constitution and acts of Parliament. The Prime Minister is the Chief Advisor to the President and the overall coordinator of the Government Offices, Ministries and Agencies. Under him/her are Ministers and Deputy Ministers and their staff members who are running different Ministries. At present there are 20 Ministers responsible for Offices, Ministries and Agencies. Ministers must therefore supervise different activities in their respective government Ministries and explain these actions to the National Assembly as well as to the general public.
Regional and Local Authority Councils
Regional and Local Governments Article 102 of the Constitution provides that the Country be divided into regional and local units. In keeping with this constitutional requirements, thirteen (13) administrative regions and many other Local Authorities have been established in terms of both Regional Councils Act and Local Authorities Acts of 1992.
A common feature in respect of Regional and Local Authority Councils is that they both have substantial fiscal powers and have to adhere to established procedures, systems and regulations in the day to day handling of financial matters. Taxes and levies may be collected in terms of Section 30 and 33 of the Local Authorities Act, 1992 and the Regional Councils Act, 1992 respectively. Each Region has several local governments elected by the Community to take care of the community matters. Cities and urban centers have their own municipal or town bodies that make ordinances to deal with their local issues and have the powers to enforce these ordinances.
Furthermore, all Regional and Local bodies have the power to legislate regarding their own affairs as long as their acts and conduct do not conflict with the overall guidelines in the Constitution. Their laws and acts are subject to judicial review.
Namibia has a bicameral legislature consisting of the National Assembly and the National Council.
The National Assembly is the legislative power of the Republic of Namibia, with the power to pass laws with the assent of the President as provided by Chapter 7, article 44 of the Namibian Constitution.
There are 104 members in the National Assembly, as per the Namibian Constitution as amended Article 46 (1) (a) and (b). The composition of the National Assembly shall be ninety-six (96) elected members (voting members) and eight (8) non-voting members, appointed by the President as per Article 32 (5) (c) of the Namibian Constitution.
Voting Members of the National Assembly are elected based on party lists (article 49) and every National Assembly Continue for a maximum period of five (5) years (article 50).
The National Council was formed in accordance with chapter eight of the Namibian Constitution, in February 1993, after the regional elections held in November 1992. The Council is made up of 2 representatives from each of the 13 Regional Councils, elected every six years. It reviews legislation proposed by the National Assembly and refers bills back or suggests amendments before they receive presidential assent and become law.
The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court (headed by the Chief Justice), the High Court (headed by the Judge President) and the Lower Courts. The Judiciary is independent and subject only to the Constitution. Judges are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission.